Grid - connected photovoltaic power generation many people will have misunderstandings and think that power generation will generate radiation, but not so. Grid - connected photovoltaic power generation is the generator principle of solar module, which converts solar energy into electric energy and performs energy conversion in the visible light range. In this process, no other substance will generate, let alone radiation. The grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system utilizes the photovoltaic effect of solar panels, and the photovoltaic power generation system is connected to the grid to operate without the function of battery, which is also the advantage of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation and saves more energy. Grid - connected photovoltaic power generation not only can greatly reduce the cost, but also has high power generation efficiency and better environmental protection performance, which is very in line with the concept of modern sustainable development and applies energy conservation and environmental protection to various fields. Photovoltaic power generation directly converts light energy into direct current energy through the characteristics of semiconductors, and then converts direct current into usable alternating current through inverters, all of which have metal shields and conform to the electromagnetic compatibility certification stipulated by the world.
Release time:2018-11-30 Clicks:816
Winter has arrived, and beginning of winter has already arrived a few days ago. Yesterday was a day for e-commerce to promote sales. Taking advantage of this hot moment, it is time to add some warm clothes for yourself, which is also a sales opportunity that every businessman does not want to miss.
ow everything can be bought on the Internet, solar power generators are no exception, even bigger things, showing the power of e-commerce platforms. In cold days, keeping warm is an eternal topic, and no one can hide from the arrival of winter. In areas not particularly cold, air conditioning is usually used for heating. In colder north, air conditioning is no longer of great use. If there is a widespread blackout in winter, it is just as intolerable as a blackout in summer. Blackouts mean that you cannot play mobile phones, play games, watch TV, and keep warm differently. Like many southwest and northwest regions, a solar power generator will be stored up.
The blackout is not terrible, it is terrible that there is no preparation at all, but it is not the same with the solar generator. The blackout is not a problem at all, as long as the sun rises as usual.
Release time:2018-11-30 Clicks:842
Photovoltaic panels, also called photovoltaic panels, also called solar panels, are assemblies of several solar cell modules assembled on a panel in a certain way, usually as a unit of a photovoltaic array. Single solar cells cannot be directly used as power sources. As a power source, several single cells must be connected in series and parallel and tightly packaged into components. The solar cell module ( also called solar panel ) is the core part of the solar power generation system and the most important part of the solar power generation system. Its function is to convert solar energy into electric energy, or send it to storage batteries for storage, or push the load to work. The quality and cost of solar panels will directly determine the quality and cost of the whole system.
Release time:2018-11-30 Clicks:810
Single crystal silicon is a relatively active non-metallic element and an important component of crystal materials, and is at the forefront of the development of new materials. Its main uses are as semiconductor materials and solar photovoltaic power generation, heating [ 1 ], etc. Because solar energy has many advantages such as cleanness, environmental protection and convenience, solar energy utilization technology has made great progress in research and development, commercial production and market development in the past 30 years and has become one of the emerging industries with rapid and stable development in the world. Single crystal silicon can be used in the production and deep processing of single crystal products at diode level, rectifier device level, circuit level and solar cell level. Its subsequent products, integrated circuits and semiconductor separation devices, have been widely used in various fields and also occupy an important position in military electronic equipment [ 2 ]. With the rapid development of photovoltaic technology and miniature semiconductor inverter technology, solar cells produced by silicon single crystal can directly convert solar energy into light energy, realizing the beginning of the green energy revolution. The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games will present " Green Olympics" as an important display to the world, in which the use of monocrystalline silicon will be a very important part. At present, foreign solar photovoltaic power stations have reached the stage of theoretical maturity and are transiting to the stage of practical application. The utilization of solar silicon single crystal will be popularized all over the world, and the market demand is self - evident [ 2 ]. Specific introduction We can see the figure and function of " silicon" everywhere in our life. Crystalline silicon solar cells have formed the fastest industrialization in the past 15 years. Single crystal silicon is a single crystal of silicon. A crystal with a substantially complete lattice structure. Different directions have different properties and are a good semiconducting material. The purity requirement is 99.9999 %, even more than 99.9999999 %. It is used for manufacturing semiconductor devices, solar cells, etc. It is made by drawing high-purity polysilicon in a single crystal furnace. Purpose: Single crystal silicon has diamond crystal lattice, hard and brittle crystal, metallic luster, can conduct electricity, but its conductivity is not as good as that of metal, and increases with temperature, and it has semiconductor properties. Single crystal silicon is an important semiconductor material. Adding a small amount of group iiia elements into monocrystalline silicon to form a p - type semiconductor, and adding a small amount of group va elements to form an n - type, n - type and p - type semiconductor, can be made into a solar cell to convert radiant energy into electrical energy. Single crystal silicon is the raw material for manufacturing semiconductor silicon devices, and is used for manufacturing high-power rectifiers, high-power transistors, diodes, switching devices, etc. It is a promising material in developing energy. Single crystal silicon can be divided into Czochralski method ( CZ ), zone melting method ( FZ ) and epitaxial method according to different crystal growth methods. Czochralski method and zone melting method are used to grow monocrystalline silicon rods, while epitaxial method is used to grow monocrystalline silicon films. Single crystal silicon grown by Czochralski method is mainly used in semiconductor integrated circuits, diodes, epitaxial wafer substrates and solar cells.
Release time:2018-11-30 Clicks:755
Photovoltaic modules ( also known as solar panels and photovoltaic panels ) mainly include polycrystalline modules, polycrystalline modules and thin film modules. What is the difference between single crystal and polycrystalline components? Which is good?
Solar power generation equipment
There are historical reasons why the market share of single crystal components is smaller than that of polycrystalline components: the single crystal production process is more complex and the cost is higher than that of polycrystalline components. At the beginning of the rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the production capacity was king, and the intensive single crystal production capacity could not meet the market demand in terms of expansion speed. From 2005 to 2010, polycrystalline battery technology rapidly expanded its share based on relatively low cost, thus becoming dominant.
However, single crystals have excellent properties. More than 30 years of application practice have proved the reliability of the single crystal technology route. In 1982, Europe's first online photovoltaic system was built in Switzerland, using a single crystal system. The single crystal system was also used in some domestic power stations in the 1980s. The data show that the total attenuation rate of Ningbo's single crystal photovoltaic system built in 1994 is only 3.1 % in 21 years, while the average annual attenuation rate of the single crystal roof photovoltaic system built in Munich, Germany, in 1997 is 0.4 %, which is obviously better than that of the polycrystalline photovoltaic power station.
According to industry sources, the crystal arrangement of polycrystalline materials is irregular and the power station is prone to crack during the long-term alternation of high temperature and low temperature. The single crystal structure has better mechanical properties than polycrystals and better anti - cryption. Taken together, the unit power generation of single crystals is about 5 % higher than that of polycrystals.
The advantages of single crystal power generation are due to its low operating temperature, weak light response, low line loss and low attenuation. At high temperature, the temperature difference of a single polycrystalline component is 3 - 5 degrees Celsius, and the power of the component will drop by 0.4 - 0.45 % every time the temperature rises. According to the long-term decay rate, the annual average decay rate of single crystal components is 0.55 % from the second year, while that of polycrystals is 0.73 %.
In addition, the economy of single crystal can also be reflected in saving land, building materials, engineering and installation costs. It is estimated that the 50 MW single crystal photovoltaic project can save 100 mu of land, 160 tons of steel, 40 km of cables and 50 % of labor costs than the polycrystal photovoltaic project.
In 2013, Panasonic HIT single crystal battery conversion efficiency reached 25.6 %, exceeding the maximum theoretical efficiency limit in photovoltaic industry. People again evaluated the performance and cost range of various technologies. From 2013 to 2015, the introduction of continuous rapid crystal pulling technology and diamond wire slicing technology reduced the cost gap between single crystal components and polycrystalline components to less than 3 %, and the unit investment cost of power stations using single crystal components and polycrystalline components was further reduced.
With the breakthrough of technology and the reduction of the cost of single crystal products, their characteristic advantages will be better brought into play. The industry expects that by 2016, with the application of efficient technologies such as PERC, the cost of single crystal components and polycrystalline components will be basically the same. More optimistic forecasts say that by 2018, the market share of single crystal components and polycrystalline components is expected to reach 50 % each.
On June 1, 2015, the State Energy Administration, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the CNCA jointly issued the Opinions on Promoting the Application of Advanced Photovoltaic Technology Products and Industrial Upgrading. The State Energy Administration arranges a special market scale to implement the " Leader" plan every year, requiring the project to adopt advanced technology products. In 2015, the " leader" advanced technology products should reach the following targets: the photoelectric conversion efficiency of polysilicon battery module and monocrystalline silicon battery module should reach 16.5 % and 17 % respectively. According to this requirement, the polycrystalline components correspond to 270 watts ( 60 - 156 pieces ) and 325 watts ( 72 - 156 pieces ), respectively, and the single crystals are 275 watts ( 60 - 156 pieces ) and 330 watts ( 72 - 156 pieces ). This policy is considered by the industry, or will further activate the single crystal market.
Market research shows that more than 80 % of single crystal products produced by domestic first-line manufacturers can meet the index requirements of the " leader" program. However, it is difficult for polycrystalline producers to meet the requirements of the " leader" program. Reaching the " leader" requirement is not only to say that the product meets the requirements of the procurement index, but also to verify whether it is produced with advanced technology and whether the product represents the advanced nature of the industry technology.
For a long time, polycrystal has more cost advantages than single crystal. In the past, initial investment was more important in building photovoltaic power stations. Therefore, low-cost polycrystal products are naturally more favored. Now everyone's concept is also changing, paying more attention to the average cost of electricity throughout the life cycle of photovoltaic power stations. In this case, the performance advantages of single crystal will be more prominent.
Considering the conversion efficiency and manufacturing cost of single crystals and polycrystals, at present, both single crystals and polycrystals have relatively mature technologies. Starting in 2016, the production cost of single crystal components will be almost the same as that of polycrystalline components. It is the same as that of the same enterprise that debated whether single crystal or polycrystalline silicon or thin film is good. It is not decided by which enterprise, but ultimately decided by the market, and it cannot be said who will replace whom.
Release time:2018-11-30 Clicks:927
The energy situation forecast has become an important basis for governments, energy industries and enterprises to formulate energy plans and make investment decisions. The annual global energy outlook report issued by international authorities is the core material for extensive reference in the industry. A comparative analysis of these outlook reports will help to objectively assess the current state of energy development and scientifically grasp the future development trend of the energy market.
Energy Outlook Report Overview
At present, there are many organizations engaged in energy statistics and development forecasting in the world. Among them, there are three main types of authority and influence: the International Energy Agency (IEA), the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Global Wind Energy Council. (GWEC) is an internationally recognized energy agency represented by BP, ExxonMobil, and an international energy consulting company represented by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF).
As of the end of July, the above six organizations have released a total of seven international energy outlooks or energy market reports this year. The report not only provides a large amount of energy statistics, but also analyzes and judges the medium and long-term global energy market trends.
By combing these reports, we can find that they have different focuses on the research field and the outlook cycle. Among them, in the research field, IEA "Petroleum Market Report 2018", "Natural Gas Market Report 2018" and GWEC "Global Wind Power Development Report 2017" focus on the development of single energy segment, BNEF "2018 New Energy Market Long-term Outlook" focuses on New energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaics, EIA International Energy Outlook 2018, BP World Energy Outlook 2018, and ExxonMobil's 2040 Energy Outlook (2018 Edition) broaden the scope of research to the entire energy sector.
In the outlook cycle, GWEC's forecast period is 2018-2022, IEA is 2018-2023; BP, EIA, ExxonMobil's outlook period is as far as 2040, BNEF's vision is farthest, until 2050.
Energy Outlook report main topic analysis
(1) Global energy demand growth
Many institutions believe that the world's energy demand will continue to grow in the future as energy efficiency increases and the growth rate of world energy demand declines. BP predicts that energy demand will grow by about 33% in the next 25 years. In comparison, ExxonMobil's estimates are conservative, and global energy demand is growing at around 25%.
Both BP and ExxonMobil agree that emerging economies such as China and India will be the main drivers of future global energy demand growth. ExxonMobil believes that non-OECD countries (such as China and India) may have an energy demand growth of around 40%. BP's forecast shows that by 2040, China and India will account for half of global energy demand growth, and as China transitions to a more sustainable economic growth model, its energy growth will slow, and India will be in the 21st century. Beyond China at the beginning of the year, it has become the fastest growing energy market in the world.
(2) Energy structure, low carbon transformation will continue
Agencies predict that the transition to a lower carbon energy structure will continue. The EIA believes that by 2040, all fuel consumption except coal will increase in the world (see Figure 1).
BNEF predicts that coal consumption in the global power generation industry will fall by 56% between 2017 and 2050. BP pointed out that the continued rapid growth of renewable energy is leading to the most diversified energy structure in history. In 2040, oil, natural gas, coal and non-fossil energy are expected to provide about one quarter of the world's energy, more than 40%. Energy demand growth will come from renewable sources. (See Figure 2)
(3) Carbon emission peak
BP's research shows that under the “gradual transformation” scenario, global carbon emissions will increase by about 10% by 2040, which is higher than the reduction required to achieve the Paris commitment. In the “faster transition” scenario, it is able to achieve a 50% reduction in carbon emissions in 2040 compared to 2016, but the power industry is close to full decarbonization, as most of the additional emission reductions come from power generation.
For the peak of carbon emissions, various institutions are more optimistic. BP's forecast is that carbon emissions will peak in 2026. BNEF believes that the global power industry carbon emissions will peak in 2027, the peak amount is 2% higher than the 2017 emissions, and then all the way down, 2050 emissions will be 38% lower than the peak. ExxonMobil may be the most cautious of the agencies, insisting that carbon dioxide emissions will peak in 2040, later than BP and BNEF forecasts.
(4) Electric vehicles have limited impact on oil
According to the IEA report, the substitution of new energy vehicles for oil is extremely small. In the medium or long term, the substitution is not enough to have a subversive impact on oil. BP also holds the same view that car fuels account for only about 20% of oil consumption, so electric vehicles will grow faster and will not cause oil demand to collapse. ExxonMobil’s view is that more electric vehicles and improved energy efficiency of conventional engines may cause liquid fuels used in light-duty fuel vehicles worldwide to peak in 2030, but nevertheless, with the needs of the commercial transportation and chemical industries. Growth, oil will still play a leading role in the global energy mix.
(5) China related analysis
China is the world's largest energy consumer in the past 20 years and the most important source of global energy growth. BP's World Energy Outlook (2018 edition) said that by 2040 China will account for 24% of the world's total energy consumption, accounting for 27% of global net growth. At the same time, China's energy structure will undergo significant changes. Under the “gradual transformation” scenario, the proportion of coal in primary energy will fall from 62% in 2016 to 36% in 2040. In contrast, the proportion of natural gas has nearly doubled to 13%, renewable energy is expanding rapidly, from 3% in 2016 to 18% in 2040. Renewable energy will replace oil as China's second largest energy source.
Main energy product development trends
(1) Coal: global coal consumption tends to be flat
BP believes that coal consumption is generally flat during the outlook period. In 2040, the proportion of coal in primary energy fell to 21%, the lowest since the industrial revolution. Although China's coal consumption peaked, China is still the world's largest coal market, accounting for 40% of global coal demand by 2040. The reduced consumption of China and the OECD will be offset by increased demand from India and other emerging Asian economies. India is the largest growth market for coal, and its share of global coal demand will double from just over 10% in 2016 to around 25% in 2040. (See Figure 3)
For the future of coal power, BP and BNEF have opposite attitudes. BP believes that although the fuel structure of power generation will undergo a major transformation, coal will remain the most important source of electricity by 2040, accounting for nearly 30%. BNEF is worried that when renewable energy is already cheap enough, the impact of abandonment on electricity will be low, and coal power will become the biggest loser. The reason is that from the perspective of electricity costs, coal power will not compete with wind power and photovoltaics; from the perspective of system flexibility, coal power will not be able to compete with gas power generation and energy storage. In the end, most of the coal and electricity assets will be squeezed out of the market. In the "2018 New Energy Market Long-Term Outlook (NEO)", it is predicted that with the increase in wind power and photovoltaic cost advantages, by the middle of this century, the global coal-electricity ratio will be reduced from the current 38% to 11%; fossil energy is The share of the power structure will fall from the current level of more than 2/3 to 29% in 2050.
(2) Oil: The global oil industry will continue to develop
The IEA "Oil Market Report 2018" shows that strong world economic growth requires more oil. It is expected that oil demand growth will reach an annual average of 1.2 million barrels per day, and oil demand will reach 104.7 million barrels per day by 2023, compared to 2017. Increased by 6.9 million barrels per day. Among them, China and India will contribute nearly 50% of global oil demand growth. The difference is that China's oil demand growth rate will slow down in 2023 compared with 2010-2017, while India's oil demand growth will be slightly slower. There is rise. BP's forecast is similar to that of the IEA. By 2040, the average daily consumption of global oil will reach 105 million barrels per day, an increase of 11.7% over 2016. However, in the mid to late 1930s, oil consumption will grow stagnant.
Atkinson, head of the IEA's oil industry and marketing department, explained that the oil market report 2018 pointed out that the oil market will go through two stages in the next six years. Before 2020, non-OPEC crude oil supply will exceed demand growth; but then to 2023 In the year, if the investment continues to be insufficient, the global effective buffer capacity as a buffer will only reach 2.2% of the demand, and the possibility of an increase in oil price volatility will increase before the new supply is put into production.
In the next 20 years, oil as the main energy status of transportation can not be replaced, BP's World Energy Outlook 2018 data shows that 55% of the oil will be used as transportation energy. At the same time, the consumption of petroleum as a chemical use will also increase, so in general, the global oil industry will continue to develop.
(3) Natural gas: will surpass coal as the second largest energy source
For the future development of natural gas, various institutions are optimistic that natural gas will surpass coal by 2025 and become the world's second largest energy source. According to ExxonMobil, the share of natural gas in primary energy will increase from 23.1% in 2016 to 25.7% in 2040. By 2040, global natural gas demand will increase by nearly 40% from 2016, with an average annual growth rate of 1.3%. Natural gas will contribute 37.2% of the increase in global energy demand. BP believes that the share of natural gas in primary energy will increase from 24.1% to 26.2% by 2040.
The IEA's Natural Gas Market Report 2018 analysis indicates that China will dominate the growing demand for natural gas. Global gas demand is expected to grow by an average of 1.6% over the next five years, and emerging Asian markets will be the main engine of demand. Due to China's “blue sky” policy and the impetus to improve air quality, China alone accounts for one-third of global demand growth in 2022. (See Figure 4)
For natural gas power generation, BNEF's "2018 New Energy Market Long-Term Outlook" view is that the future of gas power lies in the role value, not the amount of electricity generated. The role of gas power will be from the provision of all-weather base-load power to a backup power source for renewable energy. According to forecasts, between 2017 and 2050, coal consumption in the global power generation industry will fall by 56%, and natural gas consumption will increase by 14%.
(4) Renewable energy: strong growth in the future
In the next few years, the rapid growth of new energy sources such as wind power photovoltaics has become an industry consensus. ExxonMobil is optimistic in its report that solar power and wind power are the fastest growing energy supply, with a total growth of around 400%; by 2040, solar and wind power may triple. BP pointed out that the increasing competitiveness of wind and solar energy makes strong growth of renewable energy possible. The subsidy system will be phased out in the mid-1920s, and renewable energy is increasingly competitive with other fuels. China is the biggest source of growth, and India will be the second largest source of growth by 2030.
BNEF's Long-Term Outlook for 2018 New Energy Market predicts that between 2018 and 2050, global investment in new generations will reach US$11.5 trillion, of which US$8.4 trillion (73%) will be used for wind power and photovoltaics. The report predicts that with the rapid decline in wind power and photovoltaic costs and the decline in battery storage costs, by 2050, wind and photovoltaic power generation is expected to account for nearly 50%.
According to the GWEC “Global Wind Power Development Report 2017” forecast for the global wind power market in 2018-2022, the global wind power market will remain at the level of 2017 in 2018, and the global wind power market will resume growth in 2019 and 2020, in the 21st century. At the beginning of the year, it will break through 60 GW again; by the end of 2022, the total installed capacity of wind power will reach 840 GW. (See Figure 5)
Release time:2018-09-30 Clicks:1167
We attend Renewable Energy India Expo 2016, Sept ,7--9th. And our booth NO.I49. Welcome visit us.
Release time:2016-09-06 Clicks:909
On May 10, 2015, we signed the first order transaction with Iran customer with a great honor,a 200000W solar panel order. After half a year, with our constant communication and tireless efforts, our company finally took the first step in Iran to improve the visibility of our company and laid a good foundation for the market there.
Release time:2016-07-14 Clicks:861
April 3, 2015, Munich, Germany, held a three-day global new energy exhibition, our company participated in the exhibition and meanwhile we collected a lot of customers in Europe with high quality, we contributed our company reputation by sending a lot of our company introduction, and made a good start of developing European market.
Release time:2016-07-05 Clicks:923
Cooperate with us for two years old Indian client came to visit our factory by himself on March 20, 2015. In just one day, our boss Mr. Yan led the Indian customer visit the factory's assembly line and raw materials, also witnessed the scene workers load containers, high efficiency amazed the customer. Later customer ordered monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panel 500000W on the spot. After had evening meal, the customer flew home on 21th morning.
This visit is of great significance, so that greatly enhance our reputation in the Indian market for the future development and made our outlook brighter.
Release time:2016-07-05 Clicks:951